ABDULLAH IBN HUSSEIN°


ABDULLAH IBN HUSSEIN°
ABDULLAH IBN HUSSEIN° (1882–1951), first king of the Hashemite Kingdom of jordan . Abdullah was born in Mecca, the second son of the sharīf Hussein ibn Ali, into the Hashemite family that traced its descent from the prophet Muhammad and had been rulers of Mecca from the 11th century C.E. He grew up in Constantinople, where he received the traditional education of a Muslim gentleman and became, in effect, his father's political secretary. After Hussein had been installed as emir of Mecca in 1908, Abdullah was instrumental in the secret negotiations with the British that resulted in the "Arab Revolt" of 1916 and in the Allies' recognition of Hussein as king of the Hejaz. Toward the end of 1920 Abdullah moved north with a Bedouin army with the avowed intent of restoring his brother Faisal, who had just been evicted by the French, to the throne of Syria. At a meeting in Jerusalem in March 1921, winston churchill , then British colonial secretary, offered Abdullah the administration of Transjordan. Out of this tentative arrangement grew the emirate of Transjordan, with Abdullah as hereditary ruler, under the general terms of the British mandate over Palestine, which comprised Transjordan, but with the clauses pertaining to the Jewish National Home expressly deleted. The police of the emirate, soon styled the "Arab Legion," developed into a field force during World War II under John B. Glubb and took on a Bedouin character   more and more. In 1946 a treaty with Britain awarded Abdullah formal independence, and he assumed the royal title forthwith. In 1948 the Arab Legion, with British connivance, occupied the greater part of Samaria and Judea (designated by the un resolution of Nov. 29, 1947, as part of an independent Arab State). This was secured by Abdullah in the 1949 armistice with Israel, and he incorporated these territories into his kingdom, henceforth called Jordan. On July 20, 1951, Abdullah was assassinated as he left al-Aqṣā Mosque in Jerusalem. His murder was generally ascribed to revenge for his readiness to negotiate with Israel for the partition of Palestine and the annexation of its Arab sections. It was also the culmination of his long-standing feud with the Husseini family and its head Hajj Amīn, the former Mufti of Jerusalem. Ever since he had arrived in Transjordan Abdullah had been dissatisfied with the barren, desolate piece of land allotted to him by the British and, from the outset, sought to expand his realm. His prime vision was of a multinational Hashemite Greater Syria, but as a pragmatist, he was ready to settle for Palestine or even for its Arab sections alone. Hence, even though Abdullah's published views of the Palestine problem did not deviate from those of Arab nationalists in general, his moderate style when addressing Westerners made them, if anything, more effective. In the Israeli War of Independence, the Arab Legion proved the most dangerous enemy Israel faced in the field. However, for much of the 30-year period of his political activity, Abdullah maintained secret contacts with Jewish leaders, assuring them of his readiness to cooperate on his own terms. The highlights of these contacts were an agreement in 1933 with the jewish agency (subsequently disavowed by Abdullah) to lease about 70,000 dunams of crown land in the Jordan Valley and intermittent talks between Abdullah and certain Jewish leaders (prominent among whom were golda meir and eliyahu sasson ) during the War of Independence. All these contacts were without tangible result, with the exception of the modifications in the 1949 armistice line with Jordan. Yet he continued his negotiations with Israel for a peace treaty or for a non-aggression pact until 1950. Abdullah was a confirmed Arab nationalist, but, self-possessed and of an ancient ruling family, he lacked that admixture of frustration and hatred that became a characteristic of the next generation's nationalism. Moreover, even before World War I, Arab nationalism had been welded to his vision of Hashemite aggrandizement, and this twin concept never lost its hold on him. Abdullah is best understood as an opportunistic politician, short-range realist, and dynastic dreamer, also in his dealings with the Jews of Ereẓ Israel. The 1950 annexation of Arab Palestine (the "West Bank") not only led to his eventual murder but also completely changed the nature and the future of Jordan. He wrote Memoirs of King Abdullah of Transjordan (English tr., 1950. and My Memoirs Completed (English tr., 1954). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J.B. Glubb, A Soldier with the Arabs (1957), index; idem, Story of the Arab Legion (1948), index; A. al-Tall, Kārithat Filastin (1949) (Hebrew tr. Zikhronot Abdallah al-Tall, 1960), passim. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: K.T. Nimri, Abdullah Ibn Hussein, A Study in Arab Political Leadership (1977); M.C. Wilson, King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan (1987). (Uriel Dann / Joseph Nevo (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Abdullah ibn Hussein — Abdallah Ier de Jordanie Abdallah Ier de Jordanie Abdullah ibn Hussein, 1882 1951, né à La Mecque, mort assasiné en 1951, fut émir de Transjordanie de 1921 à 1949, puis roi de Jordanie de 1949 jusqu …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Abdullah ibn-Hussein — (1882–1951)    First king of Jordan. Abdullah was born in the holy city of Mecca, where his family had been the local rulers for ten centuries. His father, the Emir Hussein, was the nominal head of the Arab revolt against the Turks organized by… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Abdullah ibn Hussein — Abdallah ibn Husain oder Abdallah I. (arabisch ‏عبدالله الأول بن الحسين‎, DMG ʿAbdallāh al auwal bin al Ḥusain; * 1882 in Mekka; † 20. Juli 1951 in Jerusalem), Emir und König von (Trans )Jordanien von 1921 bis 1951. Leben …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Abdullah ibn Hussein — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Abdullah bin Hussein — Abdallah Ier de Jordanie Abdallah Ier de Jordanie Abdullah ibn Hussein, 1882 1951, né à La Mecque, mort assasiné en 1951, fut émir de Transjordanie de 1921 à 1949, puis roi de Jordanie de 1949 jusqu …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Abdullah ibn Saba — (600 670) est un personnage dont l existence est remise en question et dont les avis à son sujet sont controversés. Il ne doit pas être confondu avec le savant juif converti à l islam, Abdullah ibn Salam qui résidait à Médine à l époque de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Abdullah ibn Saba' — Abd Allah ibn Sabaʾ al Ḥimyarī (or Sabāʾ , also sometimes called ibn al Sawdāʾ, ibn Wahb, or ibn Ḥarb)[1] was a 7th century figure in Islamic history who may or may not have had an actual historical existence and often associated with a group of… …   Wikipedia

  • Abdullah Ibn Saad — Abd Allâh ibn Saad ibn Sarh ‘Abdullāh ibn Sa‘ad ibn Abī as Sarh (arabe : عبدالله بن سعد بن أبي السرح) est un général arabe, issu de la tribu d Amer, une famille koraïchite, frère de lait du calife Uthman ibn Affan. Il est gouverneur de l… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Abd Allah ibn Hussein — Abdallah Ier de Jordanie Abdallah Ier de Jordanie Abdullah ibn Hussein, 1882 1951, né à La Mecque, mort assasiné en 1951, fut émir de Transjordanie de 1921 à 1949, puis roi de Jordanie de 1949 jusqu …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Feisal I, ibn-Hussein — (1885–1933)    Leader of the Arab revolt; king of Iraq 1921–33. In the Arab revolt against the Turks in World War I, the Bedouin forces were led by Emir Feisal, third son of the Emir Hussein of Mecca. With him was T.E.Lawrence (Lawrence of… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.